Ten Things We Know About Corporal Punishment
Poor children, minorities, children with disabilities and boys are hit more frequently in schools, sometimes at 2-5 times the rate of other children.
Corporal punishment has been abolished in more than 100 nations of the world.
Corporal punishment teaches children that violence is a way to solve problems. Research shows that this message is taught to those who inflict pain, those who receive it, and those who witness it.
Corporal punishment of children is related to decreased internalization of moral rules, increased aggression, more antisocial behavior, increased criminality, decreased mental health outcomes, increased adult abusive behaviors, and increased risk of being victimized by abusive relationships in adulthood.
School violence has not increased since paddling use has declined. Violent crime in schools has declined dramatically since 1994. The annual rate of serious violent crime in 2003 (6 per 1,000 students) was less than half of the rate in 1994.
Academic achievement is a risk factor in the use of corporal punishment of children.
Corporal punishment reinforces physical aggression as an acceptable and effective means of eliminating unwanted behavior in our society.
Significantly more school shooting deaths were found in states allowing school corporal punishment than those who do not.
There is overwhelming evidence that harsh interventions are damaging to children, both emotionally and physically. The effects of such trauma may be compounded when a child has preexisting learning difficulties. When schools respond to these challenges using harsh methods, children can be further traumatized.
School corporal punishment is more widely used in states in the south and southwest and in rural districts rather than urban and suburban districts.
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights, Surveys from 1976-2003, Center for Effective Discipline.
- The Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, UK, 2007.
- Eron, Walder & Lefkowitz, 1971; Hyman & Snook, 1999; Lahey, Moffit & Caspi, 2003, Reid, Patterson & Snyder, 2002.
- Meta-Analysis of 88 corporal punishment studies (Gershoff, E.T. 2002).
- U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2005.
- Study of 8,000 U.S. families, (Straus, M.A. and Yodanis, CL, 1994.) 78% of paddling states achieved below the national average at the fourth grade level in reading. 75% of the paddling states achieved below the national average in eighth grade level reading (Center for Effective Discipline, 2004). Sixty-seven percent of Ohio paddling schools fell in the lowest 25% of schools on state school report cards in the 99-00 school year (Center for Effective Discipline, 2001).
- Position paper opposing school corporal punishment by the Society for Adolescent Medicine (Greydanus, DE. et al, 2003).
- D. Arcus, 2002.
- Mohr, WK and Anderson, J.A. 2002.
- Center for Effective Discipline, 2007.
Prepared by: Center for Effective Discipline, Columbus,OH 5-07