U.S. Statistics on Corporal Punishment by State and Race

Find the number of students paddled in your district

What Parents Can Do

What Can Kids Do About Paddling?

Corporal punishment policies
in the largest 100 U.S. school districts


U.S. Organizations Opposed to School Corporal Punishment

Newspaper Editorials

Facts vs. Opinions: School Corporal Punishment

Study: Paddling vs ACT Scores and Civil Immunity Legislation

Legislative and Grass Roots Strategies

Alternatives to School Corporal Punishment

Arguments Against Corporal Punishment

What Teens Can Do

Model State Board of Education Resolution on Banning Corporal Punishment

African American leaders call
for a ban on school corporal punishment

Forming a Coalition to Abolish
in Your School or State


Corporal Punishment Policies
in Catholic Schools


Children speak out about spanking in public schools

Ten Things We Know About Corporal Punishment

How corporal punishment was banned in Ohio public schools

A School Administrator's Testimony Against Paddling

The Paddle and The
Damage Done


To Parents of
Victimized Students

Paddling Versus ACT Scores - A Retrospective Analysis

Recently released figures show that students in states that allow disciplinary paddling continue to be dramatically outperformed by their un-spanked peers on the A.C.T., a key college readiness test.

The 2010 report from ACT.ORG shows that 86% of U.S. States showed some improvement on their ACT scores between 1994 and 2010, but there were significant differences in student performance between school systems that paddle, and those who didn’t.

Three-quarters of thirty non-paddling states posted 2010 scores above the national average, and nearly two-thirds of these states had above average rates of improvement over the prior eighteen years.

By contrast, 75% of spanking states scored below average on the ACT composite, and half had improvement rates that fell short of the national trend. As a group, students in the ten states that paddled the most had the worst test results and showed the least improvement in their scores over the previous eighteen years. Ninety percent of heavy-paddling states had below average ACT scores, and seven of the ten worst scores were from the heaviest paddling school systems in the country.

Among paddling states those that paddled less generally fared better. This group includes three states that reported no paddling incidents at all, even though spanking was allowed by law. Rates of improvement in the infrequent paddling states were four times higher than those of states that paddled more often, and four of the five paddling states posting above average composite ACT scores were from the states that used paddling least. Among these was North Carolina -- the ONLY paddling state in America to score among the top ten in improvement. Still, most of the infrequent paddling states posted below average composite test scores. Overall, fifteen of twenty paddling states scored below average, and nine of the ten lowest scores were from paddling states.

Long Term Trends
Comparison of State Composite ACT Score Changes from 1994 to 2010
Relative To School Paddling

Measurement
(ACT State Composite Scores)

All
States
Paddling
States
Non-
Paddling
States
Ten
paddling
states that
paddle the
least
Ten
paddling
states that
paddle the
most
States With
Educator
Immunity
ten states
that have
banned
paddling
longest
Ten most
recent
states to
ban
paddling
% of States Improved

86%
(43 of 50)

85%
(17 of 20)

87%
(26 of 30)

90%
(9 of 10)

90%
(9 of 10)

100%
(7 of 7)

90%
(9 of 10)

90%
(9 of 10)

% Improvement
(Average)

2.76% 1% 3.87% 4.1% 1% 1.37% 5.2% 2.98%
% of States Declined

14%
(7 of 50)

15%
(3 of 20)

13%
(4 of 30)

10%
(1 of 10)

20%
(2 of 20)

0%

10%
(1 of 10)

10%
(1 of 10)

% Decline
(in states that declined)

-3.86% -4.23% -3.58% -3.48% -4.61% NA -1.82% -1.9%

% Improvement
(Average)
Excluding seven states with declining scores

4.24% 3.55% 4.7% 4.9% 1.98% 2.05% 7.75% 3.52%
States With Improvement Above Nat’l Avg

58%
(29 of 50)

50%
(10 of 20)

63%
(19 of 30)

80%
(8 of 10)

20%
(2 of 10)

42%
(3 of 7)

80%
(8 of 10)

60%
(6 of 10)

States With Improvement Below Nat’l Avg

42%
(21 of 50)

50%
(10 of 20)

36%
(11 of 30)

20%
(2 of 10)

80%
(8 of 10)

57%
(4 of 7)

20%
(2 of 10)

40%
(4 of 10)

Average
2010 ACT Composite Score

21.54 20.58 22.24 20.81 20.24 20.45 22.93 21.87

States With Above Average2010 ACT Composite

56%
(28 of 50)

25%
(5 of 20)

77%
(23 of 30)

40%
(4 of 10)

10%
(1 of 10)

14%
(1 of 7)

100%
(10 of 10)

70%
(7 of 10)

States With Below Average 2010 ACT Composite

38%
(19 of 50)

75%
(15 of 20)

13%
(4 of 30)

60%
(6 of 10)

90%
(9 of 10)

86%
(6 of 7)

0%
(0 of 10)

20%
(2 of 10)

Corporal punishment data obtained from the U.S. Dept. of Education Office of Civil Rights 2006-2007  
( Most Recent Data Available)
ACT Scores obtained from ACT.ORG

ACT Composite Scores for States Forbidding Corporal Punishment
No non-paddling states have teacher immunity

State

Year Paddling Banned

2010 Composite ACT Score

2008 Composite ACT Score

1994 Composite ACT Score

Percentage Change
2008-2010

Percentage Change Since 1994

New Jersey

1867

23.2

22.7

20.9

+2.2%

+11%

Massachusetts

1971

24

23.6

21.5

+1.68%

+11.63%

Hawaii

1973

21.6

21.6

22.0

+0%

-1.82%

Maine

1975

23.2

22.7

21.6

+2.2%

+7.41%

Rhode Island

1977

22.8

21.9

20.7

+4.11%

+10.14%

New Hampshire

1983

23.7

23.1

22.0

+2.6%

+7.73%

New York

1985

23.3

23.1

21.6

+.87%

+7.87%

Vermont

1985

23.2

22.7

21.5

+2.2%

+7.91%

California

1986

22.2

22.2

21.1

0%

+5.21%

Wisconsin

1988

22.1

22.3

21.9

-.9%

+.9%

Nebraska

1988

22.1

22.1

21.3

0%

+3.76%

Alaska

1989

21.1

21.2

20.9

-.47%

+1%

Connecticut

1989

23.7

23.3

22.1

+1.72%

+7.24%

Iowa

1989

22.2

22.4

21.9

-.89%

+1.37%

Michigan

1989

19.7

19.6

21.0

+.5%

-6.19%

Minnesota

1989

22.9

22.6

21.8

+1.33%

+5.05%

North Dakota

1989

21.5

21.6

21.2

-.46%

+1.42%

Oregon

1989

21.5

21.2

22.5

+1.42%

-4.44%

Virginia

1989

22.3

21.8

21.3

+2.29%

+4.69%

South Dakota

1990

21.8

22.0

21.1

-.91%

+3.32%

Montana

1991

22.0

22.0

21.8

0%

+.92%

Utah

1992

21.8

21.8

21.3

0%

+2.35%

Illinois

1993

20.7

20.7

21.1

0%

-1.9%

Maryland

1993

22.3

22.0

20.7

+1.36%

+7.73%

Nevada

1993

21.5

21.3

21.2

+.94%

+1.42%

Washington

1993

23

23.1

22.3

-.43%

+3.14%

West Virginia

1994

20.7

20.7

19.9

0%

+4.02%

Delaware

2003

23

22.6

21.9

+1.77%

+5.02%

Pennsylvania

2005

21.9

22.1

21.0

-.9%

+4.29%

Ohio

2009

21.8

21.7

21.2

+.46%

+2.83%

ACT Composite Scores for States Allowing Corporal Punishment
Highlighted States Also Have Immunity

State

% of Students Paddled

2010 Composite ACT Score

2008 Composite ACT Score

1994 Composite ACT Score

Percentage Change 2008-2010

Percentage Change Since 1994

Mississippi

7.5

18.8

18.9

18.7

-.5%

+.5%

Arkansas

4.7

20.3

20.6

20.1

-1.46%

+1%

Alabama

4.5

20.3

20.4

19.9

-.5%

+2%

Oklahoma

2.3

20.7

20.7

20.3

0%

+1.97%

Louisiana

1.7

20.1

20.3

19.4

-1%

+3.6%

Tennessee

1.5

19.6

20.7

20.2

-5.31%

-2.97%

Texas

1.1

20.8

20.7

20.2

+.5%

+2.97%

Georgia

1.1

20.7

20.6

20.3

+.5%

+1.97%

Missouri

.6

21.6

21.6

21.2

0%

+1.89%

Florida

.3

19.5

19.8

20.8

-1.52%

-6.25%

Kentucky

.3

19.4

20.9

20.1

-7.18%

-3.48%

North Carolina

.2

21.9

21.3

19.4

+2.82%

+12.89%

New Mexico

.2

20.1

20.3

20.0

-1%

+.5%

South Carolina

.2

20

19.9

19.1

+.5%

+4.71%

Indiana

.05

22.3

22.0

21.2

+1.36%

+5.19%

Idaho

.04

21.8

21.5

21.2

+1.4%

+2.83%

Kansas

.01

22

22

21.2

0%

+3.77%

Arizona

0.0

20

21.9

21.1

-8.68%

+5.21%

Colorado

0.0

20.6

20.5

21.4

+.5%

+3.74%

Wyoming

0

20.0

22.1

21.2

-9.5%

+5.66%

 

back to top


The Center For Effective Discipline
327 Groveport Pike, Canal Winchester, Ohio, U.S.A. 43110 | Telephone: (614) 834-7946 | Fax: (614) 321-6308